With more than a decade's experience and continuous product development, we are acknowledged experts in Single/Double ferrule compression tube fitting Technology. Today, "Precision" Compression fittings are natural choice, virtually to any applications in Chemical, Petrochemical, Power and Instrumentation industry, either for vacuum or pressure applications up to 600 Kgs/cm2, and from 1/16" OD to 1" OD tube sizes. Our manufacturing and stringent quality control facilities can cater fittings requirements to any customized service, with flexibility to meet any local demands. These web pages give an overall view of extensive range of standard fittings we can offer. For more specific information on each individual type, please feel free to contact us. On the following web pages we present our tube fitting's range, which complies with any US / UK standards of Interchangeability.
Currently used implant materials: ·
Biocompatibility can be defined as the compatibility of any (foreign) material with a living organism. The interaction between the material and the vital tissues should be so minimal that the material should not be detrimental to the tissue nor the tissue to the material. Endosteal implants are evaluated primarily by reaction of bone to the material. No significant harm to the host. Dr. John Autian Interactions between the host and the material. "Biologic performance" Dr. Jonathan Black · Response of the host to the material (local and systemic) · Response of the material to the host.
ULTRA-STRUCTURE OF PERIMPLANT TISSUES
Hemidesmosomes Free gingival margin similar to those surrounding teeth Regenerated non-migratory epithelium Stratified squamous, non-keratinized crevicular epithelium Basal lamina between the crevicular epithelium and the implant formed a structure produced by the secretory vesicles.
Keratinized mucosa is more desirable than lining mucosa bordering the implant posts. Metal ions can be toxic, sensitizing and oncogenic. The unknown potential of chronic low-level release of implant products on the host and difficulty in adequately testing these phenomena are of profound interest. Any release of Ti ions is believed to occur at a very slow rate.
METALLIC IMPLANT SURFACE
Biocompatibility of Ti is associated with its adherent, self-repairing surface oxide TiO2 is the most common of various Ti oxides TiO2 is of 3 different crystalline structures: anatase, rutile, brookite TiO2 is very stable and chemically inert, hence the most biocompatible and corrosion resistant Also has tendency to denature proteins, high dielectric constant, and increased van der Waals bonding.
IMPLANT SURFACE CONTAMINATION
The most common source: sterilization
SURFACE MODIFICATIONS FOR BETTER TISSUE RESPONSE
Purpose: · To improve chemical stability of TiO2 · To reduce leaching of ions · To enhance or facilitate mineralization process or bone formation · To promote tissue adhesion Treatments: · UV light treatment · Radiofrequency glow discharge (micro-ashing or plasma glow) Result in hydrophilic, high surface energy with critical surface tensions greater than 40dyne/cm, which promote interfacial integrity, bioadhesion, remove surface contaminants and better load-bearing surfaces. IDEAL IMPLANT MATERIAL · Chemically stable · Non toxic · Non carcinogenic · Facilitate minerlization or calcification · Promote tissue adhesion INTERFACIAL REACTIVITY AND BIOADHESION Steps in formation Covering (adsorption) of surface with protein-dominated film Activation of Monocyte-Macrophage series Colonization of adjacent living cells Mechanical interlocking and chemical bonding between Ti implant and surrounding bone tissue Chemical bonding: van der Waals bonding, and ionic, covalent and hydrogen bonding. If chemical bonds are too strong, protein will denature. If bonds are weak, protein will retain its original configuration. (This is what is required). Formation of Ti-peroxide is critical for acceptance of Ti. Has inflammatory effects - inactivates PMNs. Zone of 20-40 nm collagen-free amorphous ground substance that consisted of proteoglycans and glycoproteins, and hyaluronidase and chondroitin sulphatase activity. Higher surface energy-higher wettability-higher cell attachment rate. Fibronectin, a high molecular weight glycoprotein, is a adhesive protein. Important in cell-to-cell attachment and spreading of biomatrix components like collagen. Laminin and chondronectin have a similar role. IMPLANT-SOFT TISSUE INTERFACE A DENTAL IMPLANT IS EXPECTED TO FUNCTION IN AN ENVIRONMENT SO HOSTILE THAT IT CAUSED THE DEATH OF ITS PREDECESSOR Teeth and dental implants are the only structures that penetrate a lining or covering epithelium. The interface is dynamic. Implant is apposed by supporting tissues: bone and assoc. connective tissues.